Retinal detachment describes an emergency situation in which a critical layer of tissue (the retina) at the back of the eye pulls away from the layer of blood vessels that provides it with oxygen and nourishment. The longer retinal detachment goes untreated, the greater your risk of permanent vision loss in the affected eye. 

Tìm hiểu thêm về đau mắt đỏphẫu thuật phaco, điều trị đục thủy tinh thể và phương pháp mổ mắt cận thị.


 

Risk factors?

The following factors increase your risk of retinal detachment:

    - Aging —more common in people older than age 40

    - Previous retinal detachment

    - Family history of retinal detachment

    - Extreme nearsightedness

    - Previous eye surgery

    - Previous severe eye injury or trauma

    - Previous other eye disease or disorder

Retinal tear's not the same as a retinal detachment. Retinal tears often happen first. If fluid from within the eye passes through a retinal tear, that can separate the retina from its underlying tissue - and that's retinal detachment.

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Signs and symptoms

A retinal detachment is commonly preceded by a posterior vitreous detachment which gives rise to these symptoms:

    - Flashes of light (photopsia) – very brief in the extreme peripheral (outside of center) part of vision

     - A sudden dramatic increase in the number of floaters

     - A ring of floaters or hairs just to the temporal (skull) side of the central vision

    - A slight feeling of heaviness in the eye

Although most posterior vitreous detachments do not progress to retinal detachments, those that do produce the following symptoms:

    - A dense shadow that starts in the peripheral vision and slowly progresses towards the central vision

    - The impression that a veil or curtain was drawn over the field of vision

    - Straight lines that suddenly appear curved

    - Central visual loss

In the event of an appearance of sudden flashes of light or floaters, an eye doctor needs to be consulted immediately. A shower of floaters or any loss of vision, too, is a medical emergency.

Treatment    

- Lasers is used to seal tears or holes in the retina before a retinal detachment occurs. 

- Pneumatic retinopexy: If you have a small detachment, the doctor may place a gas bubble in the eye. It helps the retina float back into place. The hole is sealed.    

- Scleral buckle : gently push the eye wall up against the retina  

 - Vitrectomy: remove gel or scar tissue pulling on the retina, used for the largest tears and detachments.

Results of surgery

85 % of cases will be successfully treated with one operation with the remaining 15 %requiring 2 or more operations. After treatment patients gradually regain their vision over a period of a few weeks, although the visual acuity may not be as good as it was prior to the detachment, particularly if the macula was involved in the area of the detachment

Prevention

    - Use protective eye wear.

    - Control your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes.

    - See your eye care specialist at least once a year.

    - Be alert to symptoms of new flashes of light and/or floaters.

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